An important and extremely rare gold Xiongnu crest of a headdress in the shape of a mythological animal
Warring States period, 5th-3rd century BC
Shaped as a reclining stag with scrolling antlers terminating in bird's heads.
W. 5.8 cm
– Collection of Claude Sciaky – Menaschè, Venice
– Collection Drs. Koos de Jong, Amsterdam
– JF So and EC Bunker, Traders and Raiders on China's Northern Frontier, Seattle and London 1995, p. 56, fig. 20
– EC Bunker, Ancient Bronzes of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections, New York 1997, pp. 49-50, figs. A53 and A56
Orientations, Nov. 1999, p. 52, fig. 6
— H. Wei and C. Deydier, Ancient Chinese Gold, Paris 2001, pp. 62-63, fig. 101
A similar crest is in the Museum for the History of Shaanxi and is excavated from a tomb near Nalingaotu Village, Shenmu County, China. These precious metal luxury objects were probably produced by Chinese craftsmen for Scythian or Ukok nomads living at the northwestern borders.